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Amifostine For Injection

Cyclophosphamide For Injection

Cyclophosphamide For Injection

Description
Cyclophosphamide is a nitrogen mustard alkylating agent, from the oxazophorines group.

An alkylating agent adds an alkyl group (CnH2n+1) to DNA. It attaches the alkyl group to the guanine base of DNA, at the number 7 nitrogen atom of the imidazole ring.

It is used to treat various types of cancer and some autoimmune disorders. It is a "prodrug"; it is converted in the liver to active forms that have chemotherapeutic activity.

Uses - The main use of cyclophosphamide is together with other chemotherapy agents in the treatment of lymphomas, some forms of leukemia and some solid tumors. It is a chemotherapy drug that works by slowing or stopping cell growth. Cyclophosphamide also decreases the immune system's response to various diseases and conditions. Therefore, it has been used in various non-neoplastic autoimmune diseases where disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs have been ineffective.

Mode of action: The main effect of cyclophosphamide is due to its metabolite phosphoramide mustard. This metabolite is only formed in cells that have low levels of ALDH.

Phosphoramide mustard forms DNA crosslinks between (interstrand cross-linkages) and within (intrastrand cross-linkages) DNA strands at guanine N-7 positions. This leads to cell death.

Side-effects
Many people taking cyclophosphamide do not have serious side effects. Side-effects include chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), bone marrow suppression, stomach ache, diarrhea, darkening of the skin/nails, alopecia (hair loss) or thinning of hair, changes in color and texture of the hair, and lethargy. Hemorrhagic cystitis is a frequent complication, but this is prevented by adequate fluid intake and Mesna (sodium 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate). Mesna is a sulfhydryl donor and binds acrolein.

Carboplatin Injection

Carboplatin Injection

Carboplatin is a chemotherapy drug used against some forms of cancer (mainly ovarian carcinoma, lung, head and neck cancers). It was introduced in the late 1980s and has since gained popularity in clinical treatment due to its vastly reduced side-effects compared to its parent compound cisplatin. Cisplatin and carboplatin, as well as oxaliplatin, interact with DNA, akin to the mechanism of alkylating agents.2] Carboplatin differs from cisplatin in that it has a bidentate dicarboxylate (CBDCA) ligand as its leaving group instead of the more labile chloride ligands. 

Carboplatin Injection

Carboplatin Injection

We are leading manufacturer and exporter of Carboplatin Injection and our product is made up of good quality.

Carboplatin is a chemotherapy drug used against some forms of cancer (mainly ovarian carcinoma, lung, head and neck cancers). It was introduced in the late 1980s and has since gained popularity in clinical treatment due to its vastly reduced side-effects compared to its parent compound cisplatin. Cisplatin and carboplatin, as well as oxaliplatin, interact with DNA, akin to the mechanism of alkylating agents.

2] Carboplatin differs from cisplatin in that it has a bidentate dicarboxylate (CBDCA) ligand as its leaving group instead of the more labile chloride ligands. It exhibits lower reactivity and slower DNA binding kinetics, though it forms the same reaction products in vitro at equivalent doses with cisplatin. Unlike cisplatin, carboplatin may be susceptible to alternative mechanisms. Some results show that cisplatin and carboplatin cause different morphological changes in MCF-7 cell lines while exerting their cytotoxic behaviour. The diminished reactivity limits protein-carboplatin complexes, which are excreted. The lower excretion rate of carboplatin means that more is retained in the body, and hence its effects are longer lasting (a retention half-life of 30 hours for carboplatin, compared to 1.5-3.6 hours in the case of cisplatin).

Mode of action & Side effects :
Two theories exist to explain the molecular mechanism of action of carboplatin with DNA:Aquation, or the like-cisplatin hypothesis.

Activation, or the unlike-cisplatin hypothesis.

The former is more accepted owing to the similarity of the leaving groups with its predecessor cisplatin, while the latter hypothesis envisages a biological activation mechanism to release the active Pt2+ species.

Relative to cisplatin, the greatest benefit of carboplatin is its reduced side effects, particularly the elimination of nephrotoxic effects. Nausea and vomiting are less severe and more easily controlled. Carboplatin has also proven effective in some strains of cancer that may not be susceptible to cisplatin, including germ-line cell, small and non-small cell lung, ovary, and bladder cancers, as well as acute leukemia.

The main drawback of carboplatin is its myelosuppressive effect. This causes the blood cell and platelet output of bone marrow in the body to decrease quite dramatically, sometimes as low as 10% of its usual production levels. The nadir of this myelosuppression usually occurs 21-28 days after the first treatment, after which the blood cell and platelet levels in the blood begin to stabilize, often coming close to its pre-carboplatin levels. This decrease in white blood cells (neutropenia) can cause complications, and is sometimes treated with drugs like filgrastim. The most notable complication of neutropenia is increased probability of infection by opportunistic organisms, which necessitates readmission to hospital and treatment with antibiotics.

Relative to cisplatin, the potency of carboplatin is less potent: depending on the strain of cancer, carboplatin may only be 1/8 to 1/45 as effective. The clinical standard of dosage of carboplatin is usually a 4:1 ratio compared to cisplatin; that is, for a dose that usually requires a particular dose of cisplatin, four times more carboplatin is needed to achieve the same effectiveness. The stable property of carboplatin is a mixed blessing: once uptake of the drug occurs, its retention half-life is considerably longer than cisplatin, but it is also this inertness that causes carboplatin to go right through the human body, and up to 90% of the carboplatin given can be recovered in urine.

Cisplatin for Injection USP

Cisplatin for Injection USP

Cisplatin is a platinum-based chemotherapy drug used to treat various types of cancers, including sarcomas, some carcinomas (e.g. small cell lung cancer, and ovarian cancer), lymphomas, and germ cell tumors. It was the first member of a class of anti-cancer drugs which now also includes carboplatin and oxaliplatin. These platinum complexes react in vivo, binding to and causing crosslinking of DNA which ultimately triggers apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Usage
Cisplatin is administered intravenously as short-term infusion in physiological saline for treatment of solid malignancies.

Transplatin
Transplatin, the trans stereoisomer of cisplatin, has formula trans-[PtCl2(NH3)2] and does not exhibit a comparably useful pharmacological effect. Its low activity is generally thought to be due to rapid deactivation of the drug before it can arrive at the DNA.[citation needed] It is toxic, and it is desirable to test batches of cis-platin for the absence of the trans isomer. In a procedure by Woollins et al., which is based on the classic 'Kurnakov test', thiourea reacts with the sample to give derivatives which can easily be separated and detected by HPLC.[5]
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    Thane West, Thane, Maharashtra, India

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